Out Of Style

Once the revolution was in full force, nobody wanted to be connected to the noble classes of the old regime. That was practically a death sentence. The wealthy elite fled […]

Change Please

Around the time of the French Revolution there was an extreme shift away from all things that were commonly worn by the nobility. The commoners began to riot and persecute the […]

The Common Clothing

While hooped skirts, powdered wigs, crazy hats, and tight pants ruled the French court during the time period of the revolution, conflict led to new clothing styles among that masses. […]

Fashion Overthrown

The French Revolution changed more than the government of France, it changed the way the French looked.  Before the Revolution and in the years it was brewing, the French nobility […]

The New Fashion Police

Prior to the French Revolution, the wealthy called the shots in fashion and in life.  The aristocracy had all the power, and this was especially true and represented in their […]


In 1789, the Estates-General of France made a decision that, instead of regulating fashion and suppressing revolution, actually sparked more controversial fashion choices. The decided to set a uniform for […]

Freedom colors

Red, white, and blue were the colors that represented the French Revolution.  These colors, known as the tri colors, would be worn by the supporters of the revolution.  The tri […]

The Storm is Coming

A storm was brewing in the country of France. What the monarchy of feared most finally came to pass in the 1780’s. The ruled began to feel resentment toward their […]

La Tricolore

Red, White, and Blue- the three colors that we hold close to our hearts when we think of the United States. What I often forget though, is that these three […]

Deficit Queen

I decided to photograph an empty frame because I thought the discussion in the reading about Marie Antoinette and the spending of the French court was extremely interesting. I thought […]

No Necklace, No Problems?

Prior to the French Revolution, there was a strong dissatisfaction with the rulers of France.  Marie-Antoinette’s popularity was at an all-time low, as she was associated with a necklace scandal, […]

Portrait Appearance

Like in todays world, where people value a good profile picture, as it is what you present of yourself to others, during the French Revolution Marie-Antoinette was carefully illustrated in […]

Why are we here again?

In the late 1780s, France fell into a massive financial crisis. The country’s finance minister, Calonne, thought his strategy of “mass public spending” would strengthen France’s economy and would destroy […]

Straw Hats: the Émigré Empire

Émigrés, desperate for a life of fashion, but knowing they could not return to tumultuous France, often started businesses of simple and basic fashion in their new homes. Some were […]


When the Stamp Act was enforced in 1763, American’s did not take it kindly. They immediately boycotted the stamps and began to manufacture their own goods. Woman began hand spinning […]

Changing symbols

In an attempt to free themselves from their British ties , Americans during the Revolutionary War rejected the image the British associated with them of a young Indian girl and […]

This Ain’t Gonna Fly

After the Stamp Act in 1763, there was an increase in nationalism among the colonies. One aspect of this new found nationalism was the rejection and boycotting of goods from […]

Styles from the Past

The image of the young boys jacket on pages 88 of Auslander reminded me of a jacket that my boss gave to me over the summer. The first thing that […]

Revolutionary Works

It all began when the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act.  The American colonist were outraged by the “taxation without representation” as Parliament continued to put taxes on goods imported […]

Homespun Wool Blanket

This picture was perfect for this reading. It is a prime example of homespun wool. This one is even more special because it depicts the flag of the thirteen colonies. […]

American Values

With the growing tensions between the American colonists and their homeland, the American colonists wanted to dissociate themselves from the English as much as possible. This included the clothing they […]

Patriotic Fashion

The United States struggled for decades to find their own identity and fashion. The people of the colonies chose not to wear elegant items from Europe as a patriotic symbol. […]

Independence Symbols

During and after the Revolutionary War symbols of freedom were prominent. The national seal was often depicted on quilts and George Washington’s face was seen on buttons. Many revered presidents […]

Made in the U.S.A.

In our reading, the author talked about the importance of homespun and its influence on the politics at the time. During this time, as Americans were beginning to assert their […]

Spin to Win

Outraged with the revenue taxes imposed on them by England, colonies agreed on a nonimportation agreement, and thus vowed to boycott all British goods.  Colonists then had to figure out […]

We Love George

I have already added my post for this week, but I was walking in the library and saw this massive display of George Washington. All the memorabilia reminded me of […]

Made in America

As dissatisfaction with Britain grew in the colonies, attention was devoted to create a new American culture, with new holidays and symbols. Americans began to critique luxury items valued in […]

Knitting for the Revolution

The colonies of the United States, who had regulations and rules shoved down their throats on goods and services by the British, wanted to fight back and make a stand […]

Made in ‘Merica

During the Revolutionary war, American patriotism was an important factor that help the colonies defeat Great Britain. A key example of patriotism was the concept of homespun clothing and goods. […]

The Origin Of Stripes

Throughout history, France seems to be ahead of the world in fashion.  Russian rulers such as Peter the Great and his successor Elizabeth picked up on this fact early and […]

My fashion legislator

In Russia the rulers were known as fashion legislators. They made the rules of who could wear what and taxed citizens who did not follow the rules. Josie likes the […]

Leveling The Playing Field

These reading I found to be very interesting. I was incredibly surprised to find out that Peter I, as a monarch with such extreme power rooted in tradition and a […]


Peter I, the emperor who set the precedent for European clothing in Russia, had a daughter named Elizabeth. As he was emperor was over, she enjoyed this power. Her father had […]

Symbols of a Man

Today, we so eagerly associate shaving with the concept of the modern hardworking man. For Russia in the late 1600’s however, it was quite the opposite. Up until 1700 the […]

Changing Fashions in Russia

One of the most interesting (and amusing) things I read in the article was how Elizabeth of Russia could “not tolerate any competition” so she would cut or shave the […]

The Muffler

Strakhov in his book La Mode made inanimate objects talk, longing to become part of the exclusive court fashions again. One of the items is a muffler, which has been […]

Fashion Power Plays

In the 18th century Russia there were many clothing reforms that varied among the tsars at the time.  The rulers used laws concerning fashion to change how the nation felt […]

Bye Bye Beardie

In the 18th century, in an attempt to westernize Russia, Peter I ordered that all gentlemen, merchants, and other subjects shave off their beards, or pay a tax in order […]

Cutting of Beards

It was Russian tradition for years to have long beards with very short hair, except for the ecclesiastics who wore their hair long to set themselves apart. However, when Peter […]

Good and Bad

I decided to include a picture of scissors because the idea of cutting hair was both good and bad for men and women respectively during this time in Russia. The […]

Symbols in Fashion

Peter the Great brought many changes to society in Russia, affecting fashion and the social scene. His main point was to break away from traditional and religious Russian styles, and […]

Then and Now: Unchanged

The fashion described in the first reading seems extremely similar to the fashion of today. When reading the article I kept thinking to myself, I wear that, or I own […]

The Beginning of Hammer Time

Prior to trade with the Ottomans, European women solidified their role in a paternalistic society by wearing dresses.  During the nineteenth century, skirts and dresses became a form of dress […]

A Relaxing Elixir

Coffee for me is an excellent aid for relaxation. Most favorable after a long dinner with the family, but almost equally welcome in a cafe a hot cup of coffee […]


Hillel is always hustling and bustling every morning (except on the Sabbath of course) and its because Washington and Lee students enjoy the atmosphere of the coffee house. Sure you […]

Consumer Revoultion

Beginning in the mid-16th century there was a change in consumer culture, one that allowed the rigid social structure of the Ottoman empire of the ruling and ruled to become […]

The Ottoman Influence

One of the things I found most interesting from the first article by Inal was how British women admired the liberties and freedoms of the Ottoman women; thus, the they […]

Coffeehouse Common Room

This common room setting reminds me of a typical coffee shop that people could find today.  In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire was introduced to coffeehouses, which were very […]

never go out of style

In the Ottoman Empire, coffee was more than just a drink; it was the main method of socialization. The atmosphere of the Ottoman coffee shops promoted intellectual discussion of politics, […]


During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman empire saw the introduction of coffeehouses. These coffeehouses were hubs for leisure and social inclusion during this time period, as it acted as […]


The reading talked about how cross-cultural exchanges between the Ottoman Empire and England through what they called “borderlands”. Obviously these two nations did not share a border so the so […]


In 18th century Britain, fashion magazines emerged as the new source for information about global fashion. However, before magazines, fashion knowledge was transferred through local tailor shops. Many rural women […]

quality over quantity

This weeks readings saw the emergence of the textile industry and the effect of textiles on the establishment on more modern fashion in the West.  In particular, the popularization of […]


As soon as Beyonce wore this KALE shirt, companies started mass producing it and selling it to people that wanted to look just like Beyonce. This shirt makes the wearer […]

Painted to Printed

Printed fabric in a way, is very similar to printed books. When each industry was first starting out, both had to produce their products by hand. This was an extremely […]

Switching Style

When I was first asked, “Why was cotton, silk, and many other textiles so heavily imported from the far east?” my first reaction was to think that this was because […]

The Strength of Cotton

As seen in the above image, cotton was a strong influence that greatly affected the Spanish Empire and its policies.  Late into the 18th century, Spain attempted to replace foreign […]

Globalization of Fashion

Ever since trade has been in place fashion has been altered everywhere. The Europeans in the Seventeenth Century loved Indian cotton, silks from China, and Calicoes. Today, this globalization of […]

The Lady in White

Vincente recalls the story of a young woman arriving in the colonies dressed in a lavish white dress. Locals could tell that the dress was made from foreign fabrics. The […]

Patterned Items

I chose to take a picture of my patterned shoes because it relates to trade throughout parts of Europe. Old Cairo traded items that had a high range in quality, […]

“Press Start”

In 17th century Europe, the desire for fine, colorful Asian silk, Indian cotton, and other luxurious commodities influenced market demands. Cotton, silk, and other textiles were imported from India and China, […]

The Original Photoshop

My current free read is Why Not Me? by Mindy Kaling, a comedian and screenwriter. The inside binding of the book is a repeating, silly little pattern of various phones, […]

Brilliance From Abroad

From its first appearance on European soil, Chinese porcelain, the delicate blue-and-white design took Europeans by storm. However, the blue-and-white that Chinese porcelain was know for, was a borrowed style […]

The evolution of china

In the seventeenth century, Chinese porcelain was a hot commodity.  Everyone wanted a form of it, whether it be the wealthy with the real porcelain shipped from China or the […]

Anything that Will Sell

I took a picture of the attachable phone credit card holder with the Washington and Lee logo because it is an example of a new hot commodity that many companies […]


My roommate brought this collage with her to college (top photo) and I thought it was a really fun way to see all the people you love when you were […]

Borrowed and Blue

One idea I found particularly interesting from this weeks reading was the fact that the Chinese did not create the blue and white dish ware synonymous with porcelain China.  According […]

Authentic VS Imitation

Whenever there is a product of nice quality, there is always a market for a cheaper version. Almost all luxury items especially in fashion have faux reproductions. This was true also […]

Santa Catarina

The Santa Catarina was a Portuguese ship that was captured by the Dutch while the Dutch were at war with Portugal and Spain.  This was the most famous capture of […]

Impossible Standars to Follow

As a professional in taste, Wen Zhenheng wrote a famous book on cultural consumption titled, A Treatise on Superfluous Things. Having grown up in one of the richest families in Suzhou, […]

A College Student’s China

In the reading from Vermeer’s Hat, it talked about the china dish and its importance in the emergence of the art of still-life. A table would typically be covered in with a […]

Ignorance is Money

In 17th century China, Wen Zhenheng wrote a book instructing the lower class of society “do’s and don’ts” when it came to fine Chinese porcelain. In both Europe and Asia, […]


The reason why I posted this picture about chocolate is pretty obvious. This week’s readings I found fascinating. I never knew that chocolate was said to have so many healing […]

the food of celebration

For centuries, individuals used chocolate as a way to celebrate special occasions.  Our readings discussed how entertainers would offer chocolate to the new guests in their homes and how Charles […]

A Timesless Treat

Chocolate is not just a simple fad. It has been an extremely sought out product since before the 17th century. As featured above, there are many different types of chocolate […]

Chocolaty Addictions

Studies have shown that when couples consumed chocolate, their brains released more endorphins than when they kissed each other. Perhaps this is explains why Sonny the Bird was so “CooCoo […]

Chocolate: Then and Now

Though chocolate is still considered an indulgence and a nice gift on certain occasions, I believe it is perceived differently now by some than it used to be. In one […]

The Love of Chocolate

Chocolate, although a common commodity today, was once a great luxury.  In Sacred Gifts, Profane Pleasures Marcy Norton discusses the importance of chocolate in the 17th century Spanish culture, although chocolate […]

The Cure

Chocolate was the drug of a sugar-crazed society. Besides drinking and eating chocolate for social reasons, chocolate was also used as a medical cure. Available in Jesuit pharmacies, chocolate was […]

The Chocolate Cure

It was believed that chocolate was a cure for everything. It gave people energy, aroused people, made people cheery, and helped the ill. In the Seventeenth Century, Hospitals gave their […]

A Love-ly Delivery

In 17th century Spain, chocolate began to be used as a way to court someone.  It began to be considered flirtatious or seductive to send chocolate, thus people often sent […]

Candy or Cure?

In 18th century Portugal, chocolate was believed to have “magical healing powers”. The Portuguese used chocolate as a medicine to cure both injuries and illness. The Royal Portuguese Military Hospital […]

Means of Hospitality

This is a picture of a refrigerator full of drinks. In today’s times, it is common, when a guest walks into your house to greet them by asking, “Would you […]

Sugar cane

In the Caribbean, everyone consumed sugar cane in so many different ways. It was so popularized that people would simply chew it. The article reads that everyone was an expert […]

Food and Society

For our reading today, the author talked a lot about how food (and what we eat in general) reflects society. “Transformations of diet entail quite profound alterations in people’s image […]

Sugar Rush

The variety in the diet that the people of the United States are accustomed to today, did not exist in the past.  The diet instead revolved around a focal point, […]

Sugar Sweet Awesomness

Oh how I love cookies!! Truly each one is a divine gift unto the earth. Each cookie is baked from a heavenly medley of ingredients. Standing alone, each ingredient already […]

Sugar, a Necessity

Mintz mentions that before 1650 sugar was considered a luxury item in England. Before sugar the English experienced sweetness through eating honey or fruit, neither of which was plentiful or […]

Widely Accepting Sugar

“Food preferences that emerge early in life do so within the bounds laid down by those who do the nurturing, and therefore within the rules of their society and culture” […]

The Sugar Hierarchy

Throughout this class, we have read papers discussing the hierarchy of clothing, but this paper adds a whole new hierarchy to the mix. A hierarchy of food, and even more […]

souvenir shopping

Our reading this week had a short story in the introduction about a man named Charles from Puerto Rico who was studying in the United States.  When his friends heard […]

Food: Unifier and Divider

Food serves as a part of the daily culture of all peoples around the world. The feeling of hunger is universal, however what individuals and their cultures produce to satisfy […]

Thank You People of the Tropics

Almost everyone has baked cookies before. The white, granulated ingredient is sugar.  This ingredient does not develop in this form.  Sugar is actually a product produced from growing sugar cane. […]

Social Studying

I took a picture of my friends Jenny and Katherine Anne, as we are studying on the main floor of the library. In the reading, it talks not only of the […]

Pasta Sauce

“Supplementary tastes gain their importance because they make basic starches ingestively more interesting”.  If you eat pasta without sauce, then you are crazy.  In the past, people began adding these supplementary […]

Friends. Family. Food.

Food. Without it, we become angry and moody monsters. With it, we create unbreakable bonds. One of the historical traditions among family is the partaking of food together. From birth, […]

market strategies

This weeks reading discussed the trade of beaver pelt and the high demand for the material to make hats for wealthy Europeans at the end of the sixteenth century.  In […]

Beaver Hats

My picture, which features me wearing a fur trimmed hood, reminds me of what an upper class, Dutch (or European) person would have worn after 1580. With the rise of […]

The Elusive Path

Many aspects of the beaver fur trade between Canada and Europe were brought to light by Brook in “Vermeer’s Hat”.  The wars and rituals of the Native Americans, the fashion […]

Beaver Hats

My roommate Lucy would be noticed as one of the prestigious members of the community just for wearing this “beaver” hat. For years and years, beaver pelts had disappeared from […]

A Scalp Necklace

Champlain described war between Native American tribes as a mystical experience, consulting spirits and interpreting dreams to predict the outcome of the confrontation. When the skirmish was over the winning […]

The Price of Luxury

The illustration above depicts the cruel reality of the the effect of luxury goods being traded between Europe and the Native peoples of America. With the acquirement of the latest […]

The demand of hats

In “Vermeer’s Hat” by Brook, it is stated that the wealthy of the seventeenth century only wore hats made from beaver pelts. For many years though, beavers were extinct in […]

The Decline of Hats

Hats used to be way cooler. As it says in the reading, no Dutch man of status in the 17th century would ever be seen in public bare headed. The […]

Katherine’s Hat

I decided to concentrate on the first page of the reading in which Vermeer’s hats are discussed. Here, the author writes about the different types of hats Vermeer would paint […]


In the 1600’s waterways were essential. They facilitated trade, movement, and provided important resources to the people. Samuel Champlain, the leader of a French mission on the St. Lawrence, understood […]

Madness for Fashion

At last spring’s fashion war of Lilly Pulitzer for Target, I managed to snag some “beaver fur.” Target partnered up with the famous Palm Beach sassy, southern clothing company to […]

“Nice Hat Bro”

In the mid 1600’s, Dutch citizens refused to go out in public with a bare head. They never took off their hats, not even for the monarch. Men and women […]

The Sacrifice

After their victory against the Mohawks, Champlain’s Native allies, the Algonkians and Hurons, believed in sacrificing at least one of the men they had captured.  Sacrificing was a serious business […]

Veil of the Unknown

In the times before 1586, women were permitted to wear a veil over their face to be completely covered up. As depicted in this image, it is extremely difficult to […]

Who is it? We don’t know

In this costume, Lucy would have been able to hide her identity and show off what an intelligible woman she really is without worrying about people judging her or punishing […]

the modern tapada

In 16th century New World Spain, women paraded around in mantles called el tapados as a way to rebel and appear seductive.  Lawmakers saw the increasing appeal and allure of […]

Escudos and A Class Ring

The image I have posted above is my friend’s class ring. She was given this ring when during an official ceremony in-between her junior and senior years of high school, […]

Vidá Común de Universidad

In New Spain, bishops attempted to force convents to reform to a communal lifestyle, called vida común.  At first the convents ignored this request, but eventually they slowly started reforming. […]

Unwanted Change

The image of the black violin represent the tapadas in the New World. The way it deviates from the norm of what people expect to see, brings about a sense of […]

The Veil of Death

Men were commonly seduced by women wearing tapada de medio ojo, a veil which only exposed one eye of the woman. Because the veil concealed the identity and status of […]

The White Hand

In tapadas comedies, women would distract men by manipulating their mantles and gloves.  In the tapadas play, La celosa de si miasma, the newcomer Don Melchior goes to Mass almost immediately […]


The turmoil between New Spain and it’s mother country is fully displayed within their religious conflicts. The center-point of the conflict lies within the escudo de monja, as discussed by […]

Ostentatious Culture of Spain

I chose to represent Seville’s culture by photographing jewelry. As Seville became a larger and larger metropolis, the idea of showing one’s wealth became more popularized. In Bass and Wunder, […]

Unreformed Nuns

Throughout the seventeenth century the Mexican Bishops made several efforts to reform creole convents. Much of this reform had to do with the complaint of nuns dressing too luxuriously, expensively, and […]

A Modern Veil

This pair of sunglasses depicts a modern way of covering ones face. Whether being used as a fashion accessory, for protection, or to help hide ones face, sunglasses are a […]

Beneath the Mask

In Rebecca Gales “History Workshop Journal”, she compares two quotes sixty years apart concerning the fashion of the colonial Mexico City. The first quote, from 1778, describes how fashion is […]

Nuns Gone Wild

In Mexico, Spain and its rulers imposed many reforms and restrictions. To oppose these restrictions, Mexican nuns wore escudos; these were medallions to represent their solidarity with the new culture […]


“Taste the Rainbow”- Skittles’ slogan refers to the multitude of flavors-represented by each color of the rainbow-that each one of its packets offers. There is orange, grape, strawberry, green apple, […]

Flowers compared to castas

These flowers reminded me of the castas in New Spain during the 16-18th century. There is a darker purple, a lighter purple, and a red. The red reminds me of the […]

less is more

In Mexico and the rest of Latin America, dressing well was not a way to express individuality or have fun, but a way to display wealth.  In order to appear […]

The Beauty Mark

Casta paintings in the latter eighteenth century became more detailed, showing plants, objects, textiles, and more.  In her description Katzew tells us about the presence of the beauty mole in […]

Labels and Colonial Mexico

The image of color pencils represent the endless mixing of races in Colonial Mexico. Red and blue make purple. However, there’s light purple, violet, purple violet, mauve and countless others. […]

Castas by Century

In this picture, Sydney is portrayed as a slave in both the 18th century (left) and 19th century (right).  When historians recovered castas, they discovered that there was a very […]

Casta Portrait

This is a picture of my friend Julia. I put a painting effect on the photo to represent the casta paintings, which identified the social stratification in colonial Mexico. I […]

Modern Day Casta

I took this picture of my friend Kitty Lambrechts to act as a modern day high-class casta. Due to her light skin, Kitty would be considered at a fairly high standing […]

The Indian and the Nun

In our reading for Tuesday, there was an interesting story in which the New Mexico Indians revolted against the Spanish and the chief attacked a statue of a Virgin with a […]

The College Kid Casta

One of the biggest points I picked up from the two readings was how clothing was the visual display of one’s socioeconomic status, or basically how much money they had. […]

Categorizing Race and Fashion

This is an image of Professor T.J. Tallie at Washington and Lee University. Dr. Tallie has dedicated his career to teaching students about complex subjects such as race, gender, and […]